В задании приводится некое утверждение. Вам нужно написать сочинение-рассуждение, в котором вы выражаете собственное мнение касательно данного утверждения (opinion essay).
НАПИСАНИЕ ЭССЕ В ЕГЭ 2018 ГОДА ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ
Эссе должно быть чётко структурировано и включать в себя следующие части (каждая начинается с нового абзаца):
- Вступление. Здесь вы должны обозначить проблему, указанную в задании. Важно перефразировать её, а не переписать слово в слово. Например, задание «In order to get a good adecation one should go abroad” можно переформулировать так: “Nowadays, the problem of studying abroad causes great argument and controversy”. Также следует дополнить этот тезис небольшим комментарием-пояснением. Закончить вступление можно риторическим вопросом.
- Выражение собственного мнения. В данном абзаце необходимо тезисно отразить ваше личное отношение к данной проблеме и подкрепить его 2-3 развернутыми аргументами. Важно, чтобы доводы были убедительными, ёмкими и логичными. Аргументы вводятся с помощью универсальных слов-связок и фраз.
- Выражение противоположного мнения. Третий абзац эссе должен содержать точку зрения оппонента. Этот тезис также необходимо подкрепить 1-2 аргументами. Важно, чтобы аргументов у оппонента было на 1 меньше (т.е., если во 2-м абзаце у вас три аргумента, в 3-м должно быть два), потому что наша цель – доказать собственную правоту.
- Несогласие с мнением оппонентов. Здесь следует опровергнуть мнение оппонента, выразить свое несогласие и подкрепить его 1-2 контраргументами. Помните, что вы приводите контраргументы к доводам оппонента, их количество должно быть одинаковым (2 аргумента оппонента = 2 ваших контраргумента).
- Заключение. Последний абзац должен содержать обобщенный вывод касательно обсуждаемого вопроса, который также дополняется комментарием. Можно использовать универсальную фразу, которая заставит читателя задуматься над проблемой.
План работы над заданием №40
I. Внимательно прочитайте фразу-стимул
II. 1 абзац: введение в проблему • Увидеть в задании 2 противоположных точки зрения • Перефразировать фразу • Написать 3 предложения 2 абзац: свое мнение • 2-3 аргумента 3 абзац: противоположное мнение • 1-2 аргумента 4 абзац: контраргументы • НЕ перечислять уже названные свои аргументы 5 абзац: заключение • Перефразировать 1 абзац
III. Соединить абзацы с помощью вводных слов.
IV. Посчитать количество слов.
V. Проверить орфографию и пунктуацию (обязательно выделить запятой вводные слова)
Ниже приведена таблица с образцами вводных слов и фраз.
СТРУКТУРА ЭССЕ В ЕГЭ 2018 ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ
|Обозначение проблемы||Nowadays,||the problem of … causes great argument and controversy.|
|In today’s world,|
|the issue of … is considered to be a matter of common concern/the main concern of …|
|Комментарий к проблеме||Some people believe that … while others think…|
|On the one hand, … on the other hand … .|
|Риторический вопрос||Where is the truth?|
|Who is right?|
|2. Выражение собственного мнения||Тезис||In my opinion, …|
|As for me, I believe that…|
|My personal view is that…|
|1 аргумент||To begin with,|
|To start with,|
|2 аргумент||What is more,|
|3. Выражение противопо-ложного мнения||Тезис||However, there exists another point of view on this issue.|
|Nevertheless, one can consider this problem from another angle.|
|1 аргумент||First of all,|
|The first thing to be considered is …|
|2 аргумент||Another fact is that …|
|4. Несогласие с мнением оппонентов||Тезис + 1-й контраргумент||Despite my respect for this opinion, I cannot share it because …|
|Nevertheless, I cannot agree with this statement, because…|
|2- й контраргумент||Moreover, one should not ignore the fact that…|
|5. Заключение||Вывод||In conclusion,||I would like to say that||the problem of… is still to be discussed.|
|Taking into consideration all mentioned above,||It is impotant to understand…|
|Комментарий||As far as I am concerned, the point is to…|
УНИВЕРСАЛЬНЫЙ ШАБЛОН ЭССЕ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ
Nowadays, the problem of … causes great argument and controversy. Some people believe that … while others think … . Who is right?
In my opinion, … . To begin with, … . What is more, … . Additionally,… .
However, there exists another point of view on this issue. First of all, … . Besides, … .
Despite my respect for this opinion, I cannot share it because… . … .
In conclusion, I would like to say that the problem of … is still to be discussed. As far as I am concerned, the point is to…
Еще один шаблон:
Шаблон эссе-мнения (Opinion essay pattern)
Что можно написать в каждом абзаце (примерный шаблон):
1) The problem of _____(тема)______ has always aroused heated debates. Some people are convinced that ______(мнение, с которым вы согласны)_____. However, the others believe _____(мнение, с которым вы не согласны)______. Let us speculate what makes them think so.
2) I cannot but agree that ______(мнение, с которым вы согласны)_____. Firstly, _____(первый аргумент)______. Secondly, _____(второй аргумент)______. Thirdly, _____(третий аргумент)______.
3) Some opponents might argue that ______(мнение, с которым вы не согласны)______. They suggest that ______(первый аргумент оппонентов)______. Moreover, ______(второй аргумент оппонентов)______.
4) Nevertheless, I do not support the above mentioned ideas. One should take into account the fact that ______(разрушение аргументов оппонентов)______. Besides, ______(разрушение аргументов оппонентов)______.
5) All in all, ______(мнение, с которым вы согласны)______. Despite the arguments of various skeptics I am convinced that our ______(SOCIETY / PLANET / FAMILIES / CHILDREN / ENVIRONMENT / SENIORS / SOULS)______ need(s) ______(кратко мнение, с которым высогласны)______.
Таким образом мы уже имеем 76 слов, и они серьезно облегчают работу над эссе!
ОБРАЗЕЦ ГОТОВОГО ЭССЕ ЕГЭ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ
- Comment on the following statement:
What is your opinion? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:
− make an introduction (state the problem)
− express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion
− express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion
− explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion
− make a conclusion restating your position
Примеры готовых ЭССЕ:
Единый язык для всей планеты. За и против
No doubt that learning languages takes up a lot of time. That is why some people think that it would be better to have only one language on our planet. But will it be really beneficial for mankind?
In my opinion, the reduction of the number of languages is a disaster because it will totally destroy our great cultural heritage. With each loss of a language comes a loss of a culture, a loss of a way of life that deserves to be protected and treated as valuable. I also believe that leaving one language for communication will greatly reduce the linguistic diversity of our planet, which is the key to our survival. What is more, it will be rather difficult to choose which language to use and it may even lead to wars.
Many people think that if we have only one language, communication will become easier and there will be no need to learn foreign languages. I cannot agree with them because knowledge of foreign languages makes a person educated and well rounded. You cannot broaden your mind if you see the world only from the perspective of your own culture. Besides, people are a lot more helpful if you speak their language.
In conclusion, I would argue that we should try our best to preserve the linguistic diversity of our planet. I think that larger cultures should have a respect for minority languages, but first of all the younger generation must want to preserve their native language.
Животные в зоопарке. Как вы к этому относитесь. Справедливо ли это
There are a lot of zoos in the world and millions of people visit them every year. But are zoos harmful or helpful to animals which are caged there?
I strongly believe that we should not keep animals in zoos because captivity is not natural for them and it is a constant stress to a wild animal. Keeping animals in zoos harms them by denying them freedom of movement and association. What is more, zoos are like prisons for animals as they live in small cages and do not get necessary food. In addition, animals become very aggressive and unpredictable as they get older and often attack zoo keepers and other people.
However, most people think that zoos help endangered species survive. But this is not true because most rare animals are extremely difficult to breed in captivity. Besides, in zoos, it is almost impossible to meet the animals’ natural needs. Another argument for keeping animals in zoos is that people learn something new about these animals. Actually, zoos do not teach us much because animals do not act the way they would in the wild. I think we can learn more about animals by watching wildlife programs on TV.
In conclusion, I would argue that zoos do not seem to help endangered species and keeping animals behind bars only for the sake of our entertainment is not quite fair. In my opinion, people must create nature reserves, where wild animals will be able to live in their natural environment.
Запрещение машин в центрах больших городов. За или против
There is no doubt that the invention of the car changed the world and nowadays we can hardly find a family without a car. Nevertheless, some people are against cars, especially in the centers of big cities.
In my opinion, cars should not be allowed into the city centers as they add to pollution and poison the air we breathe. We must also think about the people who live in the center and suffer from the noise made by cars. Moreover, the streets in the center are usually narrow therefore people are often stuck in traffic for many hours and, as a result, arrive late at their destination. Finally, with ho cars in city centers, there would be no need for large ugly car parks, which would allow more space for parks.
However, many people believe we would not be able to survive without cars because most of the products for shops and other businesses are transported by cars. Besides, they are afraid that public transport would be overloaded. I am sure it is possible to solve these problems by introducing a reliable high frequency tram service as well as developing the underground. As for goods, we could use electric vehicles for their delivery.
To sum up, I believe that a clean, reliable and environmentally friendly public service would encourage people to use public transport and help smooth the transition to a car-free zone.
Изучение иностранного языка – лучшее, что может быть, изучать его в стране, где на нем разговаривают. Согласны ли вы
Nowadays people spend lots of money in order to go to an English-speaking country to improve their language skills. But is it really the most effective way of learning a language? In my view, studying in a foreign country has certain drawbacks.
Firstly, this way is very expensive as the tuition fee for overseas students is rather high. Besides, when you study abroad, you have to adapt to a very different way of life, which can be quite stressful. What is more, English teachers do not speak Russian so if you don’t know English well, you will not understand their explanation.
It is often assumed that it is better to study a language abroad because you can always use it speaking with native speakers. However, I doubt that we will have lots of opportunities to speak abroad as we do not know many people there. It is also believed that Russian teachers are not as qualified as those in England. I totally disagree with this opinion because Russian teachers can compare two languages and explain grammar rules better.
To sum up, I would argue that the best way to learn a language is to study it in your native country because you can always get the necessary help from your teachers. Moreover, today we have lots of opportunities to improve our skills such as communicating with English pen-friends over the Internet. I think that we should travel abroad so as to practise a language but not to study it.
Иностранные языки. Сейчас в школах изучают по 2-3 языка. За и против
Most people understand that without knowledge of foreign languages it is difficult to survive in the modern world. Therefore they send their children to schools where they can study two or even three foreign languages. However, is it good to study several languages simultaneously?
On the one hand, foreign languages are the main part of our culture so they help us to expand our outlook. We cannot broaden our minds if we see the world only from the perspective of our own culture. In addition, learning languages is a good exercise for the intellect. Moreover, if pupils know at least one foreign language, they learn new languages much faster.
On the other hand, many pupils find it confusing to learn two or three languages at a time, especially languages that are similar, because children usually mix up lots of words. Besides, some languages are tricky enough to learn. For example, in English there are more exceptions than rules. In this case, children can be overloaded with homework. More than that, some pupils do not know their native language well and learning several foreign languages could prevent them from mastering their own language.
In conclusion, I want to say that learning languages is extremely beneficial and I would like to know different foreign languages. However, I believe children should not learn too many languages at the same time so as not to get confused. They ought to get a solid base in one language before they start learning a new one.
Интернет. За и против
We live in the age of information technology and nowadays the Internet is nearly as common as the telephone. No doubt that it is a unique invention, which has influenced all areas of our lives. However, some people consider the Internet one of the greatest evils of our time.
On the one hand, the Internet is very useful, because it lets us access a world of facts, figures and knowledge. In addition, with the Internet, it is now possible to speak to friends and relatives any-where in the world cheaply and quickly. Other services are also available through the Internet such as booking tickets or buying things. Moreover, the Internet allows a lot of talented people to show the world their achievements and makes it easier to find a job.
On the other hand, the Internet can become a disaster for our society, because people spend hours in front of their computers and neglect their everyday duties. Another worry is the activities of cybercriminals. For example, hackers can steal your money or even your property while cyberterrorists may ‘attack’ the world’s computers, causing chaos, and making planes and trains crash. What is more, leaders of different terrorist or oppositional organizations can use the Internet to find new followers.
In conclusion, I strongly believe that despite the criticisms by some and the fears of others, the Internet seems to have changed our world to the better and we must try to make the best use of it.
Клонирование. За и против
Recent advances in genetic biology have led us to quite a doubtful situation. People all over the world argue whether human cloning research should be controlled by the government as solving problems connected with human cloning is definitely not a piece of cake.
In my opinion, human cloning experiments are extremely dangerous because there are huge risks of abnormalities in human clones. Moreover, if clones have been made, they will obviously have serious psychological problems connected with their unusual birth. Finally, there is no doubt that human cloning will change our perception of what is the value of a human life as we might change from having children to manufacturing them.
However, scientists claim that human cloning could be very beneficial as therapeutic cloning could provide stem cells for regenerative medicine and tissues for transplantation. Besides, re-productive cloning will probably give parents who are both infertile an opportunity to have children. I am afraid that this technology is not safe enough to use on humans. It is also possible that clones will age quicker since the cell used in the cloning procedure has already been used in a real life individual.
To sum up, we must question whether human cloning is really worth it when weighed against the problems it raises. From my point of view, human reproductive cloning should be under the tight control of the government and the UN because it is dangerous to interfere with nature and the consequences can be really disastrous.
Книги или компьютеры. Кто победит в будущем
The latest advances in information technology make people think that schools of the future will use computers instead of printed books. Although electronic books have not been widely accepted yet, they have certain advantages over traditional paper volumes. But will they be able to replace printed books?
In my opinion, students will be widely using computers for studying in the future. To begin with, computers can store lots of books in their memory and modern software allows us to find quickly the necessary information. Besides, with the interactive programs on computers studying will be much more exciting. What is more, electronic books will not degrade overtime like their printed counterparts.
On the other hand, lots of disbelievers argue that computers will not replace printed books because a printed book is better for human eyes than a computer screen. In addition, books are cheaper and easier to use since they do not need electricity or the Internet connection. I cannot agree with this because modern computer screens emit no radiation and allow us to read even in low light conditions. Of course we will have to pay for electricity but I think it will be cheaper than to pay for printed books, which are very expensive nowadays.
To sum up, I think computers and printed books will peacefully coexist for years to come, but in the future technological progress will make it possible for students to carry laptops or even palmtops instead of traditional bags with lots of heavy books.
Компьютерные игры. За и против
People have always had different hobbies but technological progress has caused the appearance of computers and computer games, which can keep a child occupied for hours. However, adults consider computer games a complete waste of time.
As for me, I believe computer games are more than mindless entertainment. To begin with, computer games can teach people to achieve their aims as they regularly put obstacles and traps in the way of players which are necessary to overcome in order to progress through the rest of the game. Additionally, computer games can be a valuable source of accidental learning that can be applied to school, home, and social events. Moreover, teachers have also started to appreciate educational games as an opportunity to make their lessons more exciting.
Nevertheless, quite a few people are against this activity as they find it rather addictive and harmful for children’s health. They argue that computer games make students neglect their school work. However, if we learn to control our computer use and play games for an hour just to relax after a hard day at school, this will not do us any harm. What is more, modern technology made it possible to eliminate the bad effect of computers on our eyes.
To sum up, I believe that computer games have more advantages than drawbacks. They make us persistent, develop our logical reasoning and help us to escape from everyday problems. The thing is to find a right balance between virtual reality and everyday reality.
Космос. За и против исследований в космосе
Space exploration can mean a major leap for mankind. However, it is often criticized because the price for these space experiments is too high, especially while poverty still exists in many parts of the world.
On the one hand, space research is extremely beneficial as it advances technology. As a result of this work, we have lots of inventions, which have made our lives much more comfortable. In addition, through the exploration of space, we could find new elements, minerals or even discover new laws of physics and eventually learn more about ourselves. What is more, space exploration will allow us to establish a human civilization on another planet as a hedge against the catastrophe that might occur on the Earth.
On the other hand, the benefits of space exploration are not self-evident, no matter how real they are. It costs billions of dollars to fund the projects of space science whereas this money should rather be spent on meeting the needs of the underprivileged. Besides, some of the technology we develop through space science can be used in a destructive manner if it is in the wrong hands. Finally, a travel to space can be dangerous as we may discover something that is extremely harmful for the living beings on Earth.
To conclude, I want to say that space exploration satisfies the human desire for adventure therefore most people are interested in space research. Nevertheless, I believe our governments should find the right balance between social and space programs.
ПРАВИЛА НАПИСАНИЯ ЭССЕ В ЕГЭ
- Считайте слова
Обязательно нужно уложиться в заданный объём: 200-250 слов (допускается отклонение на 10% в обе стороны, т.е. 180-275 слов). Если в эссе ≤179 слов, то за задание ставится 0 баллов. Если ≥276 слов, то проверяются только первые 250 слов. Помните, что 1 слово – это всё, что находится между двумя пробелами. Дефисы (-), и апострофы (’) не являются пробелами, поэтому слова из разряда world’s, open-minded, UK, считаются за одно слово. Тренируйтесь писать письма на экзаменационных бланках – так вы научитесь на глазок определять количество слов и будете меньше тратить времени на их подсчёт.
- Пишите в официальном стиле
Нельзя использовать сокращения (только полные формы I am, cannot), а также начинать предложения с неформальных слов-связок well, also, but). Используйте безличные формы глагола (one should). Богатый словарный запас и разноообразие грамматических и синтаксических конструкций демонстрирует высокий уровень знания английского языка.
- Правильно рассчитайте время
На выполнение этого задания выделите себе 40 минут: 20 минут на черновик, 15 мин. на чистовик и 5 мин. на подсчёт слов и проверку. Обязательно проверьте эссе перед сдачей!
Верьте в себя, и всё получится! Удачи на экзаменах!